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Compare highway tunnel lighting source

As part of the road tunnel, in order to ensure driving safety and comfort, both day and night lighting are inseparable. Therefore, tunnel lighting electricity tariffs account for a large proportion of the operating costs of the highway. As an important part of the highway tunnel lighting operational energy consumption, how to choose high-performance, low-power light source can be a key highway operation of energy saving.

Highway tunnel lighting system
Particularity reflected in highway tunnel lighting: the emergence of visual phenomena and tunnel lighting road lighting standard visual phenomena has encountered significant differences, mainly reflected in the day, the sun during the day, the tunnel outside brightness very different to completely eliminate this difference, economically technically considered unrealistic, only properly designed according to the characteristics of the human eye to adapt to light to provide a good visual environment, to ensure that the tunnel traffic environment comfortable and safe. Highway tunnel lighting into basic lighting and enhance the lighting, which is mainly to ensure that the basic lighting and night lighting inside the tunnel basic lighting segment. And enhance the lighting is the main daytime lighting needs visual adaptation.

The purpose of the tunnel lighting is by providing artificial lighting to adjust the brightness of the transition changes in brightness is controlled within the range of human vision adaptation curve, reduce the brightness of the dramatic changes to ensure traffic safety and comfort. To this end, tunnel lighting is usually divided into the introduction, transitional, basic and outlet.

1) black hole effect and dark adaptation entering a tunnel
Due to the large differences in brightness during the day inside the tunnel outside the cave, tunnel viewed from the tunnel outside the tunnel entrance showing a black hole. Cars From bright outside into the tunnel in the process, the ambient brightness from the n × 103cd / m2 reduced within a few seconds to n × 10-1cd / m2, the eyes will be short-lived disability, over a period of physiological adaptation time to see the situation inside the tunnel, the "adaptation lag."

2) intermediate section Lighting
After the driver drove the inlet section and transition section, the driver's vision will complete dark adaptation process. Next, the middle section of the lighting task is to ensure stopping sight inside the tunnel. The middle section of the illumination level of air permeability (ie ventilation), traffic speed and volume of traffic and other factors. Inside the tunnel as a closed structure, for traffic safety, the need to maintain a reasonable brightness, both to ensure traffic safety, does not waste too much energy. Moreover, the impact of factors other than the comfort of brightness there are many other factors, such as light color, lighting arrangement, a point light source or a line light source, etc., will affect the driver's subjective feeling.

The night is not as strong dark day fitness problems, traffic is also greatly reduced, so the lighting standards can be reduced. Which reduces the level of traffic accidents is not limited to. The general reduction factor of 0.5 is preferable. At night along the full length of the tunnel lighting according to the same standard. Ensure the surface brightness is also necessary to ensure that the side wall has a sufficient brightness in the side wall of 2m high range should lay reflectance of not less than 0.7 of the wall material. By bicycle and pedestrian tunnels, avoid the risk of pedestrians and bicycles in the underground passage and that may occur.

3) exit section of illumination
One-way traffic in the tunnel, it is sometimes necessary to export section for proper treatment, in order to mitigate the adverse effects caused by the phenomenon of the white hole. For example, no proof of export outside the cave environment, facing the sea, in the face of snow-capped mountains, high brightness and glare can be formed, the outlet should enhance the lighting, or the need for enhancing lighting.

In the two-way traffic tunnels, both the inlet and outlet ends, the two ends of the same lighting conditions, thus lighting outlet sections deal with the problem do not exist.

Glare outlet section refers to the east or west of the exit, at sunrise or sunset when the sun may direct penetration tunnel, stark direct glare. To avoid this phenomenon, the outlet should be properly disposed of, which are mainly two ways: Set curve in the cave outlet section, or outside the cave and did not set the curve segments for cover. After the former outlet section curve for the sun does not directly penetration tunnel, even if there will be irradiated with sunlight incident on the wall, after reflection brightness can increase exports segment, so that drivers have a bright light conditions and time to adapt. If you set the curve, just opposite the exit direction when a mountain is ideal. The latter set the curve on the exit approaches, and set the outer retaining wall of the curve, planting evergreen trees and other tall, blocking the sunlight. Because of the several phenomena, which gives the tunnel lighting proposed higher requirements, it must be set a reasonable partition, select the appropriate source and take appropriate arrangement of lamps and other to maximize the elimination of negative phenomena, to ensure a good driving environment.

Tunnel light source selection
Lighting highway tunnels, in order to devote the necessary visual information to the driver, to prevent traffic accidents and lack of visual information, in order to ensure safety and improve driving comfort. With the development of highway construction, especially highway construction, highway tunnel scheme is widely used, the size of the tunnel lighting is growing, tunnel operators are increasingly high electricity costs; at the same time keep up with the rapid development of tunnel lighting quality roads building, seriously affect driving safety, tunnel traffic accidents are increasing. Therefore, tunnel lighting to save energy, improve the lighting effect, ensure traffic safety and comfort requirements to further improve, reasonably choose electric light is the key to green lighting.

Lamps should meet the specific tunnel environment light efficiency, luminous flux, luminous decay, life, light color and color rendering, cost requirements; while ensuring the vehicle emissions of smog formation in good visibility. Tunnel lighting effects must rely on reliable sources to achieve. Highway Tunnel Once operational, the lighting system almost in a state of long-term lighting. Choose a suitable light source is an important part of the tunnel lighting. It should be considered, rational use.

Tunnel lighting source is generally used incandescent, fluorescent, high pressure mercury lamp, low pressure sodium lamp and high-pressure sodium lamps. With the development of science and technology, lighting one after another made progress, with the introduction of LED lights as well as the advent of electromagnetic induction, these people are trying a new power source for road and tunnel lighting.

LED lights
LED tunnel lights can be called as a method of using a semiconductor light-emitting diodes used in the tunnel road lighting lamps light source. High-power LED light source is a new and emerging technology has developed rapidly, but a light source.

(1) Long life, life ≥ 50,000 hours.
(2) the current single 1-watt light efficiency 90 ~ 110lm, multi-chip integrated package of light efficiency is only 55 ~ 70lm, rendering index ≥75.
(3) No radiation, no electromagnetic interference, no flicker, no sputtering, low glare.
(4) instant start, start time ≤0.01s, without preheating, can be instantly activated lighting.
(5) electrical performance, power factor ≥0.95, the whole lamp efficiency ≥90%.
(6) extensions, and can achieve stepless dimming intelligence, security warning and other auxiliary functions.